The development of tipper trucks, which are regarded as essential for transporting bulk cargo, began in the first half of the 20th century.
According to the body configuration that affects the scale of an operation, tippers are traditionally divided into two types.
The first type of trucks, referred to as standard trucks, empty their beds at the back of the vehicle. The mechanism consists of the hinges, which are mounted at the rear of the chassis, and a solitary, enormous hydraulic ram, which is fixed beneath the front of the body. The hydraulic ram supplies enough force to lift the bed at a sharp angle while the hinges keep the bed in place and permit it to be raised vertically.
Under the condition that the sites have plenty of room, standard tippers can be used successfully. Operators must maneuver to find the ideal position for unloading even though the dump bed can only be loaded through the back.
When there isn’t much room available, it makes sense to use a three-way tipper, which is the second most typical style of tipper truck. The three-way structure, which gets its name from the category, enables a vehicle to be unloaded from three sides: the back, right, and left. This type’s exterior aesthetic resembles that of the previous one. A metal box carrying bulk material is stabilized by a reinforced frame. Under the dump bed, the distinction is visible. Four hydraulic rams with cross joints to coordinate movement make it possible for the unloading options. The bed can tilt to the left and vice versa by lifting two of the hydraulic rams from the chassis’ right side. These two hydraulic rams, which are fixed behind the cab, tilt the bed to the rear.
Tippers are divided into road network models and off-road versions based on practical applications. Regular-sized trucks, heavy dump trucks (also known as haul trucks) for use in high-production mining and heavy-duty industrial settings, and articulated haulers for moving loads over the roughest terrain are included in the latter category.
The mining industry is interested in the most recent advancements in tipper truck development. The largest truck manufacturers are a part of a research and development project that aims to promote the use of autonomous mining tippers and increase business benefits.
The newly developed trucks are fully equipped work trucks with full autonomy for both above- and below-ground operations. Using GPS technology and a variety of sensors, it is possible to continuously scan the environment, navigate obstacles (both stationary and moving), and gather other information required to plan a route and ensure traffic safety. In addition, the system enables route planning in advance and automatic route revision while in motion.
According to the project, autonomous technologies will be improved before being used more widely on public roads, increasing mining productivity and fuel efficiency.